Summer Term Topic
This term our topic is Going Global. In History children will learn about the history of global trade. In Geography they will learn about global trade, the global supply chain, what the UK exports and to where and about Fair Trade. To link with the term’s global citizenship theme of Ecological Awareness they will consider the Environmental impact of global trade.
Activity 1 - How did trade get global?
The Key questions you will be exploring are:
• What is ‘trade’?
• Could you live without trade?
• What different scales can goods be exchanged at?
• What makes trade ‘global’?
• How and why has trade changed through time to become global?
• What was trade like during each time period?
• Where do the products we buy come from?
What is Trade?
Look at these brand logos. Do you recognise them? What are they for? Do you know the country they come from?
The definition of trade is ‘the buying and selling of goods and services we want and need’. It involves an exchange of goods (and/or services) in return for other goods and services or money.
“Every man lives by exchanging.” Adam Smith economist.
The History of the Spice Trade
Watch this video to find out about the history of the global spice trade.
The History of the Tea Trade
Our trip this term would have been to the Cutty Sark in Greenwich. The Cutty Sark was built in 1869 during the height of the tea trade to bring tea from China to the UK. Have a look at the Cutty Sark website below to find out more about the tea trade.
The scale of trade has increased through time and exchanges can now happen on a global scale.
The development of communication, technology and transport have enabled trade to be carried out on this scale.
A process called ‘globalisation’ has occurred.
Definition of Globalisation: the process of the world’s countries becoming more connected as a result of international trade and cultural exchange.
Trade now happens on a larger scale (global) and at a faster pace than ever before. This means we can sell and have more access to larger range of products.
Look at the slides to explore the growth in Global trade in the last 50 years
Activity - Trade through time
You are going to research how and why trade has changed through time and create a time line.
Success Criteria :
Choose one of the time periods on the Information Sheets below (either the Stone Age, 17th Century or 21st Century). Read the information on the Information Sheets and think about the images before recording your ideas in bullet-point form on the Trade Timeline Template below. If you don’t have a printer just create your own timeline on paper.
• What resources do different regions have?
• Where do the food products we buy come from?
• Why do we import food?
• What are imports and exports?
• What do different countries import and export?
To recognise that food bought in our local supermarket comes from different locations all over the world.
Everything we want and need cannot be always produced in the UK, so we must import these goods from other countries in the world to meet demand. Think about your favourite food:
Have a look at the labels on the food in your kitchen to find out where it is produced….
What did you find out?
How many different countries did you manage to find?
We ‘import’ and ‘export’ food in a system of global trade.
Some foods we buy and eat are not grown here in the UK because of the physical Geography of the UK. For example, tropical, exotic or out-of-season fruits, vegetables and spices must be imported from overseas. Also, some products such as wheat can be grown on a larger scale which reduces cost in countries with a greater landmass such as the USA.
Do this activity below.
Open the Food Sources and Images sheet, which includes the shopping list item images, name and source location.
You can use Google Earth or online atlas instead of an atlas if you don’t have one at home.
If you can’t print the sheets out just use Google Earth or an online atlas to locate the countries and Oceans.
• What different stages do manufactured goods go through on their journey from source to sale?
• Do these stages take place at different locations around the globe? Why?
• Who is involved with the production at each stage and what is their job role?
To discover the multi-stop journeys different products travel before reaching our shops.
Manufactured goods (e.g. clothes, toys, electronics, and cars) go through more stages before reaching our shops than unprocessed and unpackaged products such as fruit and vegetables. Manufactured items go on a multi-stop journey from source to sale and more people from a range of different places around the world are involved in their production.This is shown in the slide below.
Manufactured items go through three stages of production that take place at different locations around the world: primary, secondary, and tertiary.
1) Primary- Extracting the raw materials e.g. farming, mining, fishing, and forestry.
2) Secondary- Turning raw materials into other products (processing/manufacturing stage) e.g. wood into furniture, tin into mobile phones, fish into fish fingers.
3) Tertiary- Services as provided to businesses (shops selling the brand) and other customers. The distribution to retailers around the
Watch the video below about cotton production. Make some notes about the different stages of the production of cotton and the supply chain (remember to use Youtube responsibly):
Which workers do you think make the most profit from the T-shirt? (Cotton farmers, factory workers, transporters, shop workers, clothing company)?
Read the article and watch the short documentary below on the environmental impact of the cotton industry (remember to use Youtube responsibly):
Would this make you think twice about buying cotton clothes?
What 3 things could you do as a consumer (someone buying things) to reduce your environmental impact when buying clothes?
• What products does the UK export to other countries?
• What are ‘trade links’ and ‘trade partners’?
• Which countries does the UK export the most to?
• Does the UK export raw materials or manufactured goods?
• Why does the UK export this type of goods?
To discover what products the UK exports, and which countries the UK exports the most to.
So far our learning has focussed upon imports into the UK from other countries around the globe.
This lesson involves looking at global trade from a different perspective. It focuses upon what products the UK exports to other countries.
IMPORT = A good or service brought into one country from another.
EXPORT = A good or service sent to another country for sale.
The table on the slide below shows data of where the UK exports the most to. These countries are the UK’s ‘top trading partners’ because the most money is made through trade with these countries.
Try and answer these questions from the information below:
• Are the countries the UK exports to more or less developed countries?
• Which country is the UK’s top trading partner?
Data related to global trade can be read more clearly when it is presented in graphs.
A key skill in geography is presenting geographical data in graph form.
Look at the pie chart and bar chart below and think about what the graphs tell us about the UK’s trading partners. Write down your ideas.
There are patterns of global trade: usually more developed countries export valuable manufactured goods such as electronics and cars and import cheaper primary products such as tea and coffee.
The UK is a more developed country and exports valuable manufactured goods.
The physical and human geography of the UK determines what we export. The climate, land mass available for growing, and natural resources (physical) and skills, wealth and education/skills of population(human).
Consider the following:
Answer the following questions in full sentences:
• What is fairtrade?
• Do fairtrade products cost more to produce and purchase than non-fairtrade products?
• Why might fairtrade products cost the consumer more?
• Why should we pay more for fairtrade products? What is the benefit?
To understand the positive impact that buying fairtrade products has on communities in other countries. There are huge benefits to global trade, however it needs to be done in a way that benefits the workers in the early stages of the supply chain (farmers, miners etc). Countries are described as being ‘less developed’ and ‘more developed’ countries (see slide below). Often the primary stage of the supply chain is in less economically developed countries and the tertiary in the more economically developed.
Watch the video below to find out about fairtrade:
Read The Fairtrade Foundation statement on the slide below. Then read about the benefits to fairtrade on the following slide.
Examine the pie chart of fairtrade products by volume. Do you know any other products you can buy fairtrade?
Look at the bar chart below showing the difference in price of fair and non-fairtrade items. Are fairtrade items more expensive to buy? Why?
See example below: